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Uzbekistan flag
Republic of Uzbekistan
O‘zbekiston Respublikasi
   Uzbekistan is located in Central Asia and has been independent since 1991, following the breakup of the Soviet Union. Much of the country is occupied by an arid and flat desert, but in the eastern area some mountains of a certain importance rise; the economy is centered on the cultivation of cotton, as well as on the exploitation of some mineral resources, such as hydrocarbons and gold.
Government type Presidential republic
Area 448,971 km˛ (173,349 sq mi)
Population 34,860,000 inh. (2021 est.)
Population density 78 inh/km˛ (201 inh/mi˛)
Capital Tashkent (2,694,000 pop., 4,119,000 urban aggl.)
Currency Uzbek som
Human development index 0.720 (106th place)
Languages Uzbek (official), Russian, Tajik, Karakalpak
Life expectancy M 71 years, F 76 years
Location in Asia


Kazakhstan NORTH
Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan EAST
Afghanistan SOUTH
Turkmenistan SOUTH-WEST


Largest cities
Tashkent 2,694,000 pop., 4,119,000 urban aggl.
Namangan 626,000 pop., 1,300,000 urban aggl.
Samarkand 546,000 pop., 1,368,000 urban aggl.
Andijan 442,000 pop.
Nukus 320,000 pop.
Highest mountains
Khazret Sultan 4,643 m (15,233 ft)
Longest rivers
Amu Darya 2,540 km (1,578 mi) total, including parts in Afghanistan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan
Syr Darya 2,219 km (1,379 mi) total, with stretches in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan
Zeravshan 877 km (545 mi) total, with section in Tajikistan
Largest lakes
Sarygamysh 5,000 km˛ (1,931 sq mi) total average area, about 1/4 of the lake belongs to Uzbekistan, the largest area to Turkmenistan
South Aral Sea 3,500 km˛ (1,351 sq mi), with the Kazakh portion


   Uzbekistan is administratively divided into 12 regions, plus the district of the capital Tashkent and the autonomous region of Karalpakstan, which is also the largest entity in the country, ahead of the Navoi region; the two regions of Samarkand and Fergana are the most populated, both with just under 4 million inhabitants.

   In Uzbekistan there are 18 cities with over one hundred thousand inhabitants, with Tashkent exceeding even 2 million people; the distribution of the main inhabited centers is rather unbalanced towards the eastern and south-eastern part of the country, as can be seen clearly from the second map.